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7% Iodine – Disinfectant use on the navels of newborn goats to help dry up the navels and closing the passageway into the body of the goat. Some people also dip the hooves of newborns in iodine to prevent tetanus from the dirt from being absorbed by the body.

48% Soybean Meal – A high protein by-product of soybeans.


ABGA – American Boer Goat Association.

Abomasum – The fourth and final chamber of the digestive system of ruminants. This is where the enzymatic digestion occurs.

Abortifacients – Drugs or toxins that cause abortions.

Abortion –Miscarriage. The cancellation or ending of a pregnancy.

Abscesses – Pus-filled cavities usually caused by bacterial infection.

Acidosis – Failure of the mechanism that controls the acidity of the blood, other body fluids, or body tissues so that it rises significantly and causes a low blood pH. In goats this is normally due to eating too much grain.

ADGA – American Dairy Goat Association.

Aflatoxin – A toxic compound produced by a mold fungus in agricultural crops, especially peanuts, and in animal feeds that have not been carefully stored.

Afterbirth – The placenta and membranes expelled from the uterus after birth – usually within 3 to 6 hours.

AI Light and Battery Pack – Essential for seeing inside the doe when doing artificial insemination. A light on the end of a wan, which is inserted into the Speculum to allow you to view the cervix to determine it the does is ready for insemination.

Albon – A treatment for coccidiosis.

Alfalfa – A forage crop in the pea family grown as hay or a forage crop.

AMGA – American Meat Goat Association.

Aminoglycoside Antibiotic – A type of antibiotic that works against many types of bacteria and includes streptomycin, gentamicin, and neomycin. Aminoglycoside antibiotics inactivate enzymes in actinomycetes. This antibiotic is linked with amino sugars.

Anemia – Blood containing too few red blood cells or red blood cells deficient in hemoglobin. With goats this is often caused by blood-sucking parasites. Anemia causes poor health and/or death. At Clear Creek Farms we treat anemia in goats with Geritol and/or Magic.

Ante mortem – Preceding death.

Anthelmintic – A drug that destroys parasitic worms or flushes out intestinal parasitic worms

Antibiotics –A drug capable of killing bacteria or rendering bacteria inactive. Antibiotics are derived from microorganisms, especially fungi, or are synthetically produced.

Antiseptic Ointment – A cream or salve designed to reduce or prevent infection by eliminating or reducing the growth of a microorganism.

Antiseptic Solution – A liquid designed to reduce or prevent infection by eliminating or reducing the growth of a microorganism.

Antitoxin – An antibody produced in response to a particular toxin.

Artificial Insemination (AI) – A management technique that has been available to American producers for several decades. Using frozen semen to impregnate a doe…an excellent way of improving the genetics of a herd without buying and maintaining an expensive buck. AI involves collection of semen from a buck and transfer of the semen to the reproductive tract of the doe. Does can be inseminated with either fresh semen or with commercially available frozen semen.

Aspirin – A pain relieving drug derived from salicylic acid used to relieve pain and inflammation, to lower fever, and to reduce the risk of blood clotting within an artery.

Atrophy – To shrink or waste away, usually caused by illness or injury.


Baking Soda – Sodium bicarbonate used to neutralize acid in the stomach of goats.

Banamine – The brand name of flunixin meglumine, an injectable non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug used for pain and fever.

Banding – A method of castration.

Beet Pulp – Beets are plants with large tuber roots, often fed to animals. Dried beets contain a high concentration of sugar. The residue from sugar beets provide an excellent source of high-energy feed, especially for gestating and lactating goats. The leaf of the beet is also used for livestock feed.

Billy – A male goat; a. buck.

Biomycin – An anti-infect ant antibacterial for intramuscular or subcutaneous administration to speed up the healing process. Biomycin is an OTC product, a brand name for Oxytetracycline, with a broad range of uses. Our vet recommends 1 cc per 25 pounds either SQ or IM.

Biosecurity – An awareness of methods to prevent transmission of disease. Levels of biosecurity go from 0 where animals and people are free to move and have contact with other livestock to 5 where there is total restriction of access to a farm (no outside visits to other farms where livestock might be and no outside visitors allowed). Level 5 include total control of feed sources.

Biosol –This drug is produced by Pfizer and contains 200 mg neomycin sulfate per ml and is used for the treatment of bacterial diarrhea and bacterial enteritis. The manufacturer’s recommended treatment: daily doses for treatment of bacterial diarrheas is 1 teaspoon per 100 pounds for a maximum of 14 days. Withdrawals: cattle: 1 day; sheep: 2 days; and swine/goats: 3 days.

Birth Weight – How much a kid weighs at birth.

Black Oil Sunflower Seeds – Black oil sunflower seeds are high in calories. In addition, the seeds are rich in potassium, fatty acids, phosphorus, vitamin E, thiamin, niacin, riboflavin, manganese, zinc, and calcium. They are 25% protein

Bloat – To become swollen or inflated; a disease affecting goats when there is excessive gas in the rumen. Normally bloat will be caused by eating too much “new” grass or too much grain, especially whole corn. According to Hoegger Goat Supplies’ web site, “A goat with bloat will show signs of severe distress, grunting, slobbering, much restless activity, and labored breathing.”

Blood Stop –A blood coagulant that stops severe surface bleeding from wounds and cuts immediately. Blood Stop is recommended for use in controlling minor bleeding from superficial cuts and wounds and after dehorning. It is approved for use on all animals. There are multiple manufacturers of this product.

Body Condition Score – A value from 1 to 5 (thin to fat) or 1 to 9 (extremely thin to extremely obese) used to evaluate the condition (fat vs. muscle) of an animal.

Boer – A breed of goats that originated in South Africa.

Bolus – An antibiotic in a very large pill form.

Boosters – Depending on the vaccine, a booster – or additional shot(s) – is given at specified times, usually either 2, 3, or 4 weeks or annually after the initial vaccine.

BoSe – An injectable solution containing Vitamin E and selenium. Our vet recommends this Schering-Pough product prior to breeding and within the last 30 days of pregnancy at a dose of 2 cc.

Bots – An intestinal disease caused by infection with botfly larvae.

Bottle Jaw – An accumulation of fluid in the intermandibular space - a condition more prevalent in pasture animals because of their stance while grazing. This gravity-dependent seepage of fluid is due to low blood protein and is typically caused by heavy parasitism.

Breech Birth – Incorrect presentation for delivery. In a normal delivery, the feet are pointing downward; in a breech birth the feet are pointing upward.

Breeding Season – The period of time, from a few hours to a few days, a doe is in standing heat and ready to be bred.

Breeding Season – With dairy goats, the breeding season is normally in late summer and early fall; Boer goats breed year around.

Brood Doe – An older female retained for the express purpose of continuing her genetics/bloodline by producing kids.

Browse – To feed or graze on tender vegetation such as the shoots, leaves, or twigs of shrubs or trees; the tender shoots, leaves, or twigs of shrubs and trees used as food by goats.

Brucellosis “Bang’s Disease” – A bacterial disease of goats caused by Brucella melitensis or Brucella abortus. Brucellosis in goats is rare in the United States.

Buck – A male goat; a.billy.

Buck Collection – Semen collection from male goats is another form of managing risk associated with buck ownership. Buck collection allows access to the genetics of a particular buck even when the buck is no longer on the premises or even after the buck has passed on. The owner may choose to retain frozen straws of semen for future use or sell them to someone else who recognizes the quality of a particular buck. Buck collection is a form of risk management as insurance in case the buck unexpectedly expires. This allows access to the genetics of a particular bloodline whether the buck is available or not. Semen collection from any buck is a form of insurance that minimizes risk in case loss of a buck occurs.

Buckling – A young male goat; a male kid.

Burdizzo – An instrument used to castrate bucklings. This instrument severs the cord without breaking the skin.

Butting – Ramming someone or something with head or horns.


Cabrito – A word most people associate to mean young goat.

Calcium to Phosphorus Ratio – Balancing the amount of calcium and phosphorus in feed to prevent urinary calculi.

Camplylobacter Bacteria – A bacteria that causes diarrhea, normally found in the intestines.

Cane – Receptacle that holds the semen. This metal container holds the goblets that contain the semen straws

Cane Code – An identification assigned by the collector to the individual buck being collected. This identification is placed on the top of the cane and recorded on the accompanying paperwork.

Canister Number – Semen tanks contain six canisters; each is numbered.

Capillary Refill Time (CRT) – The amount of time it takes the gums to return to normal after the pressure of a thumb or finger has been removed.

Caprine – The genus of goat; relating to or resembling a goat.

Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis (CAE) – A virus similar to AIDS in humans. It is transmitted through body fluids, especially milk from an affected animal. CAE viral infection results in arthritis in adult animals and encephalitis in kids between 2 and 6 months of age. Other clinical presentations can include a hard udder or mastitis, hypogalactia, chronic interstitial pneumonia, and progressive weight loss.

Carrier – Living creature infected with a disease and can pass it to others but does not itself display any of the symptoms; or an animal carrying a gene for a particular genetic trait or disorder without being affected by it, because two copies of the gene, one from each parent, are usually necessary for the disorder to show itself.

Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL) – Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, an abscess containing a thick yellow-green pus with little or no odor, normally located in the lymph nodes, especially around head, chest, flanks; but can also occur in spinal cord, spleen, lungs, kidney, liver, abdominal cavity, and/or brain. There is no cure, but CL can be managed using a vaccine made from the pus from an infected animal in your herd (autogenous vaccine). There is no on-label commercial vaccine approved for goats.

Castrate – Removing the testicles of a male goat making reproduction impossible.

CC (Cubic Centimeter) – A measurement for liquids. One cubic centimeter is the same as 1 milliliter.

CD Antitoxin – On label for goats. For use as an aid in the temporary prevention or treatment of Clostridial enterotoxemia caused by types B,C, and D toxin.

CD/T – A vaccine for immunizing sheep, goats & cattle against tetanus and overeating disease caused by Cl. Perfringens and Types C and D Tetanus Toxoid.

Check Eyelids – Raise the eyelids to determine the shade of pink; the darker the better. Light/white is an indication of anemia.

Check Gums – Raise/lower the lips to determine the shade of pink; the darker the better. Light/white is an indication of anemia.

Chevon – A word made up in the early 1900s to indicate goat meat. This word is not in most dictionaries, and few people outside the goat-growing community associates it with goats. It is a combination of the French word "chevre" and the word for sheep, "mutton."

Chlamydia – Spherical bacterium that causes several eye and urogenital disease; this can be a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.

Chlamydiosis – Enzootic abortion. If infected before or soon after birth, the doe aborts during last 4-6 weeks of her first pregnancy; she usually does not abort again.

CIDR – Control Internal Drug Release device – off label for goats.

Cimetidine – A vet prescribed medicine used for the treatment and/or prophylaxis of gastric, abomasal and duodenal ulcers, uremic gastritis, stress-related or drug- induced erosive gastritis, esophagitis, duodenal gastric reflux and esophageal reflux.

Cloning –Producing a genetically identical organism. From a single cell creating an organism that is genetically identical to its donor. In 1998, First cloned goat, "Mira," is conceived through the process of nuclear transfer of cells from a 40-day-old embryo. The first cloned Boer goat at Texas A&M, named "Second Addition" (registered name Downen TX 63 684) was born on March 29, 2001. The donor was an 8-year-old Boer Champion doe and a top producer in Ewing and Donna Downen's breeding program in Early, TX.

Clostridial Diseases – Malignant edema, a wound infection that is characterized by edema, gas gangrene and septicemia and is caused by Clostridium septicum; Enterotoxemia, enteritis with severe toxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens; and Tetanus, a wound infection that causes paralysis and death caused by Clostridium tetani.

Clostridium – A rod-shaped, usually motile, gram-positive bacterium that can cause serious illnesses including botulism, tetanus, and gas gangrene.

Coccidiosis – A disease of domestic animals/goats and birds, and occasionally humans, caused by coccidia in the intestines, this causes diarrhea. An oocyst that can destroy the lining of the small intestine causing severe diarrhea and often death.

Colostrum – The first secretions from the mammary glands which contains antibodies and minerals. This "first milk" is a thick fluid necessary for healthy kids, produced immediately after giving birth and before the production of milk. A kid needs a minimum of 10% of its birth weight in colostrums during its first 24 hours after birth.

Copper – A micromineral. A deficiency of copper in goats can be reflected in diarrhea, unthriftiness, poor weight gain, light-colored hair, swollen joints, easily broken bones, infertility, anemia, and a decreased resistance to disease. On the other hand, too much copper is toxic and can cause liver failure.

Corid – An anti-coccidia agent, a formulation of amprolium, that comes in powder, crumbles, or oral solution. Withdrawal times not established for goats. It is manufactured by Merial and used for the treatment of coccidiosis. It is also used for prevention of pneumonia and scours. While off-label for goats, the manufacturer’s recommended treatment as a drench is to mix 3 oz of the powder with 1 quart of water and give 1 oz per each 100 pounds for 5 days. This drug has a wide margin of safety.

Corpus Luteum – A yellow mass of tissue that forms in part of the ovary after ovulation and secretes the hormone progesterone.

Corticosteroidsa – Steroid hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. Examples are aldosterone, hydrocortisone, or cortisone.

Covexin 8 – A vaccine by Schering-Plough that protects against diseases caused by Clostridium chauvoei, Cl. septicum, Cl. haemolyticum (known elsewhere as Cl. novyi type D), Cl. novyi, Cl. tetani, and Cl. perfringens types C and D.

Creep Feeding – Providing an area where feed is available to young, small goats but where larger goats cannot intimidate. This promotes faster growth in young kids.

Critical Temperature – The minimum and maximum temperatures tolerated by goats before additional energy through diet is required to maintain normal body heat.

Crossbreeding – Breeding new strains of genetically different animals.

Crushed Corn – Will increase the utilization but the cost to crush outweighs any benefits.

Cryptosporidiosis – Infectious condition characterized by fever, diarrhea, and stomach cramps. It is spread by a protozoan of the genus Cryptosporidium.

Cud – Partly digested food goats (and other ruminants) return to their mouths after it has been in the first stomach. This food is continuously chewed to aid in digestion.

Cull – Removing animals, especially sick or imperfect/inferior ones, from the herd. Could also be a factor used to judge if an animal should be removed from the herd. Animal that do not meet future breeding standards.

Custom Feeding – Having your livestock managed and fed in another facility for a fee.

CWT – Hundred weight. Prices at graded meat-goat auctions are often listed per hundred pounds. To figure the price per pound, simply divide the CWT price by 100.

Cydectin – Off label for goats. Manufactured by Fort Dodge, this wormer, Moxidectin, is a topical formulation for control of roundworms, lungworms, grubs, lice, and mites in cattle; it also provides 7 days of protection against horn flies. People who use this product recommend 1 cc per 20, 22, or 25 pounds (depending on who is doing the recommending) administered orally. Since this is off-label for goats, there is no known withdrawal time.


Dam – The female parent.

Date of Birth – The date an animal is born.

Decoquinate – Coccidostats compound shown to be effective against coccidian but is also a thiamin inhibitor.

Deworm – To cure an animal of an infestation of parasites.

Dextrose – A sugar produced during cellular metabolism in plant and animal tissue. It is found in many fruits, especially grapes, and is a major component of honey and corn syrup.

Diarrhea – A frequent and excessive discharging of the bowels producing abnormally thin watery feces, usually as a symptom of gastrointestinal upset or infection.

Diet – What an animal normally consumes.

Disbud – To remove the horns from a young animal.

Doe – A mature female goat.

Doeling – A female kid under a year old.

Dosage – The measured, prescribed amount of medicine to be administered.

Drenching – To administer medicines orally.

Dry Matter – How much food the animal is getting after all the water/moisture is taken out of it.

Dry Off – After weaning kids, the doe must quit producing milk. This is accomplished by cutting the amount of grain to the doe. This is termed the “drying off” period.

Drylot – An area where goats are held for extender periods of time.

Durasect – On label for goats. A ready-to-use pour-on manufactured by Pfizer, designed for the control of horn flies, face flies, lice and aids in the control of horse flies, stable flies and house flies.

Dvmectin –Off label for goats. Liquid manufactured for horses for the effective treatment and control of a range of parasites.

Dystocia – An abnormal or difficult birth.


E. Coli (Escherichia coli) – A bacteria normally found in the intestines but commonly causing infection in other parts of the body.

Ear Tags – A method of identification.

Eggs Per Gram (EPG) – Number of parasite eggs found per gram of fecal material (EPG) of a given animal. To determine if you need a parasite control program you must first assess the condition of the herd. The most simple, most practical, lowest cost, and most widely used method to determine a parasite problem is an EPG (eggs per gram) of feces. The EPG is a laboratory procedure that measures the number or the concentration of parasite eggs in a fecal sample. When a cross-section of fecal samples of the herd are analyzed, an EPG assessment can supply both a general determination of the numbers of gastrointestinal parasites the individual animals are carrying as well as the potential for parasite transmission in the herd.

Eimeria Arloingi – One of the three pathogens in goats that cause coccidiosis.

Eimeria Christenseni – One of the three pathogens in goats that cause coccidiosis. Eimeria Christenseni is normally found in the small intestines.

Elastrator – Castration device that "strangles" the testicles with bands when utilized.

Elmeria Ninakohlyakimovae – One of the three pathogens in goats - intestinal crypts causing coccidiosis.

Emaciation – To become thin to the point of being unhealthy.

Embryo Flushing – The process of removing the fertilized eggs from the donor.

Embryo Transfer – The process of moving the fertilized eggs from the donor doe to the recipient doe.

Encephalitis – Brain inflammation usually caused by a viral infection.

Ennobled – A recognition program to honor the best-of-the-best in the American Boer Goat Association and the United States Boer Goat Association.

Enteritis – Inflammation of the intestines, normally the small intestines.

Enterotoxemia – Called “overeating disease” even though it is not caused by overeating, the cause of this disease is the toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium perfringens type C or type D. These bacteria are normally present in the soil and intestines. The disease is associated with lush, fast-growing pasture, feeding grains, or too much milk.

Entertoxemia Type C – Type C produces a toxin called 'Beta Toxin' which causes intestinal necrosis and severe intestinal bleeding.

Entertoxemia Type D – The Type D infection is more common than Type C. Type D produces Epsilon Toxin that causes vascular damage and increases permeability (the rate at which something passes through a membrane) facilitating its own absorption.

Entropin – A condition where the eyelid turns in.

Epernix – Off label for goats. A clear wormer. Recommended dose for goats is 1cc per 22 lbs. administered orally.

Epididymis – A coiled tube attached to the back and upper side of the testicle that stores sperm and is connected to the vas deferens.

Epinephrine – Epinephrine injection is used to treat life-threatening allergic reactions. Epinephrine works by relaxing the muscles in the airways and tightening the blood vessels. Our vet recommends a dose of 1cc per 100 lbs. – administered slowly.

Eqvalan – Off label for goats. Trademarked by Merial, provides effective control of the following parasites: large strongyles, small strongyles, pinworms, ascarids, hairworms, large-mouth stomach worms (Habronema muscae); bots, lungworms, and intestinal threadworms.

Estrogen –Any of several steroid hormones, produced mainly in the ovaries, that stimulate estrus and the development of female secondary sexual characteristics. This hormone causes regression of the corpus luteum.

Estrus – A period of sexual excitement in many female mammals during which the animal seeks to mate. Signs of estrus in goats include a swollen vagina; doe receptive to buck, standing for mating; frequent urination; mounting other does; tail flagging; and mucous chrysalis is cheesy.

Estrus Cycle – A doe will cycle every 17 to 21 days.

ET Donor – The doe who gives the fertilized eggs.

ET Receip – The doe who carries the embryos from time of transfer to delivery.

External Parasites – Parasites such as lice found on the hair and skin or in the nasal and ear passages. Ticks and lice cause severe blood loss resulting in anemia. Young and incapacitated animals are the most severely affected. Flies and other biting insects are a source of irritation.

Extra Label Drug Use – Using a drug that is off label for a specific species. If there are no approved products for a specific disease condition, or if approved products are deemed ineffective by the veterinarian, the FDA allows Extra-label Drug Use by veterinarians. FDA rules require the veterinarian have established a Veterinarian-Client-Patient relationship, be available for follow-up consultation, and calculate a reasonable withdrawal time to ensure that residue contaminated meat does not enter the food chain. It is imperative you develop a relationship with your veterinarian.


Fecal Exam – The process of analyzing feces.

Fecal Worm Egg Counts – Fecal egg counts help the farm manager determine if an animal has too heavy of a parasite load and needs worming. Count parasite eggs per gram of feces. This should be done both pre- and post-worming to determine the effectiveness of the wormer.

Feces – The body's excreted solid waste composed of undigested food, bacteria, water, and bile.

Fecundity – The ability to produce offspring.

Fertile – Capable of breeding and reproducing; used to describe an egg with the capacity to grow and develop.

Fertility – The quality or condition of being fertile.

Fetus – An embryo with all the structural features recognizable.

Fever – Abnormally high body temperature.

Finishing – Supplementing natural browse and graze with grains prior to slaughter.

Fish Teats – Boer goats tend to have more teats than are necessary, sometimes having two or more teats per side, or even having clusters of teats, when there are multi orifices on the same teat and the orifices are separated, this is know as fish teats. It could be a problem during nursing, if the kid can not get the teat into is mouth.

Fitting – The act of grooming a goat before a show of sale. Fitting consists of bathing and trimming as goat’s coat as well as trimming hooves.

Flies– External parasites.

Flunixamine – Recommended for the alleviation of inflammation and pain associated with musculoskeletal disorders; the active ingredient is Fluxixin Meglumine.

Flushing – Increasing the amount of feed and general nutritional levels (possibly by vitamin or mineral injections) a doe is given the month before breeding in an attempt to increase the number of kids she has. This management technique is said to improve ovulation rate.

Fluxixin Meglumine – A strong, non-narcotic, nonsteroidal, analgesic agent with anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity.

Foot Bath – Making goats stand in (or walk through) chemicals used for the treatment of foot rot and foot scald. Foot baths normally contain zinc or copper sulfate.

Foot Rot – Foot rot, also known as necrotic pododermatitis, is also caused by a bacteria. University of Missouri researchers believe foot rot is caused by two bacteria, Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides melaninogenicus, but staphylococci, streptococci, corynebacterium, or fungus may also cause the infection. While foot rot is prevalent with wet conditions, it also appears during times of drought. Foot rot is indicated by swelling, redness of the tissue above the hoof, and a distinctive odor. Often the walls of the hooves will separate with the space becoming filled with dirt and grime. The goat will normally have a low-grade temperature.

Foot Scald - Also known as interdigital dermatitis. This is caused by bacteria and normally occurs when we have an excessive amount of rain and the goats are walking around in mud and muck. The indication of foot scald is a white spot on the skin between the toes; often this area is swollen. Since goats are extremely sensitive to pain anyway, foot scald can cause lameness, and severely affected animals refuse to stand. This affects most facets of their lives; they don't want to eat, and they don't want to breed.

Forage – The process of searching for food by wandering around.

Forcing Pen – A method of confining animals prior to moving them into loading/treatment chutes.

Fortified Vitamin B Complex – A high protein, injectable water-based multi-vitamin complex solution used in the relief of vitamin B deficiencies and to provide supplemental nutritional vitamins. Our vet recommends a dose of 3cc to 5cc depending on the size of the animal. This vitamin tends to increase a goat’s appetite.

Free Choice – Having feed (grains) available to the animals 24 hours a day.

French Insemination Gun – The tool used to deposit the semen at the proper location. The AI gun is threaded through the cervix to deposit semen in the uterus.

Freshen – To kid and begin producing milk.


Gambrel Restrainer – Advertised as “…the complete sheep handler that fits in your pocket.” A quick, easy, inexpensive and dependable way to restrain goats.

Gastroenteritis – Stomach and intestinal inflammation caused by an infection, either viral or bacterial.

Gauge Needle – Needle size/thickness. The higher the gauge, the thinner the needle.

Genetics – A set of inherited characteristics of an animal and the passing on of factors such as color which results in similarities between one family member and another.

Gentamicin – An aminoglycoside antibiotic, usually administered by injection, used for many bacterial infections. This drug is not approved for meat animals. It can be used, along with equal parts of sterile water and dexamethasone, for the treatment of pink eye.

Geritol – Off label for goats. This human, over-the-counter drug, found in most grocery stores, is a vitamin and mineral supplement high in iron. It is used to treat anemia caused by parasites. The recommended dosage is 5cc no more than twice a day.

Gestation – Length of pregnancy. For goats this is 143 to 155 days.

Gestation – The process of carrying offspring in the womb during pregnancy; the period of development of kids.

Goat Ade – On label for goats. Manufactured by Carolina Animal Health Lab and sold by Mr. Furney Register, Goat Ade is a vitamin supplement designed to give newborns a “quick start” or boost of energy. It is also useful when the goat is stressed (possibly from an overload of worms or going to/returning from shows). The recommended dose is 2cc at birth or 15cc per 50 lbs.

Goblets – The containers for the canes.

Gordon's Goat & Sheep Spray – A water-based product containing permethrin insecticide for control of external parasites/flies.

Graft – To attach or join; to get one doe to accept the offspring of another as her own.

Graze – To eat grass and other vegetation in fields; using the land for feeding animals.


Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) – An approach to food safety anticipating and preventing dangerous situations and/or outcome.

Heart Girth Depth – The intensity, strength, and power of the area surrounding the heart.

Heart Rate (Beats/Min) – The heart rate is between 70-95 beats per minute.

Heat – Estrus.

Helminths – Parasites.

Hocks – The lower hind leg joints.

Hoof Trimmers – The tool used to trim toenails of goats.

Hookworm – A blood-sucking parasite that attaches itself to the intestinal walls.

Hormone – A regulating chemical in the body.

Hypocalcaemia (hypocalcemia) – Commonly called Milk Fever – a misnomer since one of the symptoms is a low temperature. This is caused by extremely low levels of calcium in the blood. This disease is more commonly associated with dairy goats. Within 1 to 3 weeks following kidding, the doe lacks muscle control, becomes nervous and hyperactive. She quits eating; ears and mouth are cold to the touch. Symptoms are easily confused with polioencephalomalacia, enterotoxemia, poisoning, and listeriosis. The head may be turned back to the flank, and the hind legs are spread wide and outward. The heart is very hard to hear or feel) and beats quickly and weakly. Death follows bloat, regurgitation of rumen contents and aspiration.

Hypomagnesaemia (hypomagnesemia) – Easily confused with hypocalcaemia, this ailment is caused by low levels of magnesium in the blood.

Hypothermia – Dangerously and abnormally low body temperature.


IBGA – International Boer Goat Association.

Immunity – The body's ability to resist disease either naturally or as a result of vaccination.

Injection Locations – The best site to give a goat a shot is a location where the medicine will be the most effective without damage to expensive cuts of meat. The preferred sites for IM injects are the neck and triceps. The best site for a SQ shot is behind the shoulder (arm pit), between the front legs on the chest floor, and on the neck. It is advisable not to inject yourself in lieu of the goat. The easiest location to give a shot is the loin or hind leg areas; never give a meat goat an injection here.

Insemination Sheaths – Plastic covers for the AI gun.

Intermediate Host – An animal that is the host for an immature parasite which then moves on to a different body before reproducing.

Internal Parasites – Worms located in the lungs, stomach, or intestines of goats.

International Unit (IU) – A unit of measurement for drugs and vitamins.

Intestinal Parasites – Worms that cause weight loss, poor growth, diarrhea, anemia, and edema (“bottle jaw”). Haemonchus contortus and Ostertagia circumcinta are the main problems in goats in our area.. Goats never develop resistance to internal parasites. Adequate management, to include pasture rotation, attention to overstocking, and deworming, is critical.

Intramuscular Injection (IM) –To administer treatment (fluids/medicines) into the muscle.

Intranasal (IN) –To administer treatment via the nose.

Intravenous (IV) – To administer treatment (fluids/medicines) into the veins.

Ivomec Sheep Drench – Off label for goats. Manufactured by Merial, this wormer provides treatment and control of adult and fourth-stage larvae of roundworms and lungworms, and all larval stages of nasal bots. The label recommendation is to administer orally at a dose of 3 ml per 26 lbs body weight – for sheep. Due to the high dosage, this is not a cost-effective wormer for goats.


Johne's Disease – Paratuberculosis, commonly called Johne’s disease, is a bacterial disease caused by Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis. It causes chronic enteritis and wasting. This is a contagious disease, with no good diagnostic procedure, that is spread through the ingestion of feed and water contaminated with feces.


Keds – Bloodsucking ticks (Melophagus ovinus).

Ketones – The cause for Ketosis (Pregnancy Toxemia), which can occur in pregnant does late in their pregnancy. The doe will rapidly metabolize fat from her body stores producing ketones (a toxic by-product) and the symptoms of the disease.

Kid – Baby goat.

Kidding – The act of having babies.


LA 200 – Off label for goats. One of many brand names for Oxytetracycline – an effective antibiotic.

Lactated Ringers – A type of intravenous fluid, often used in trauma situations, which mimics the chemistry of human blood. These are used to replenish fluids in a dehydrated goat.

Lactation Period – The period/time a doe’s mammary gland is producing milk.

Laminitis (Founder) – An inflammation of the sensitive tissue (laminae) lying below the layer of horn which covers the hoof.

Laparoscope – An instrument for viewing inside the body giving the examining vet a view of the internal organs, especially, in this context, the ovaries.

Laparoscopic – Examination of the internal organs using a laparoscope.

Laparoscopic Artificial Insemination – A method used to deposit semen directly into the horn of the fallopian tube.

Legumes – Plant that has pods as fruits and roots that bear nodules containing nitrogen-fixing bacteria.

Lethargic – Sluggish, tired, lack of energy.

Leucocyte – White blood cells.

Lil Kreep'r – A free-standing commercially procured creep feeder. This is an excellent free-choice feeder. A grated-entrance can be restricted to small animals only, or the feeder can be used for larger animals if the grate is removed.

Linebreeding – Breeding animals that are closely related to each other. If successful traits appear from the breeding it's linebreeding; if undesirable traits appear from the breeding it's in-breeding.

Linebreeding – The deliberate mating of closely related individuals in order to retain characteristics of a common ancestor.

Liquid Nitrogen Tank – Also known as Semen Tank – the canister that holds the liquid nitrogen (coolant which keeps the sperm frozen).

Liver Flukes – A parasite that infects the liver.

Livestock Guardian Dog (LGD) –A dog that adopts and stays with the herd to protect them from predators.

Loading Chute – Equipment used for putting animals into a truck or trailer.

Lochia – The normal vaginal discharge the doe has following kidding ; this dark blood substance may be present for several weeks.

Lungworms – A parasitic nematode worm that inhabits the lungs, sometimes causing coughs or respiratory distress.

Lutalyse (PGF2A or Prostaglandin) – A drug, manufactured by Pfizer, used for estrus control.

Lymph Nodes – Any of numerous oval bodies, distributed throughout the lymphatic system, that produce and house lymphocytes and filter microorganisms and other particles from lymph.


Maiden Doe – A young animal bred for the very first time.

Mange – Mange is an infectious skin disease of animals caused by mites, a tiny eight-legged creature related to spiders and tick, and results in hair loss, scabs, and itching.

Manure – Animal excrement frequently used as fertilizer for soil.

Markings – A pattern of marks or identifying marks on the animal’s coat.

Mastitis – An inflammation of the udder caused, normally, by a bacterial infection. The udder may appear hot, painful and hard. The affected may have a characteristic change from a normal milk secretion to a watery or yellow secretion.

McMasters Fecal Eggs Per Gram (EPG) Test – Using a McMasters slide to count the number of parasite eggs per gram for a fecal exam.

Meat Withholding – The period of time between medicating and slaughter.

Melatonin - A hormone derived from serotonin and secreted by the pineal gland that produces changes in the skin color and is important in regulating biorhythms.

Metritis – The inflamation of the uterus.

Milk Fever – Hypocalcaemia. A disorder characterized by abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood.

Milk Formula – There are many commercial milk-replacer formulas on the market. We use a home-made formula of whole milk, evaporated milk, and butter milk.

Milliliter (Ml) – Unit of volume equip to 1/1000th of a liter.

Minerals – While most commercial feeds contain all the vitamins and minerals goats require, feed can be supplemented by minerals in blocks, tubs, or loose. As a minimum, a mineral mix should contain vitamins A and D for general animal health and milk production, iodine to prevent gout, selenium for strong muscles and to prevent white muscle disease, calcium for bone development, phosphorus (must be in proportion to the calcium to prevent urinary calculi), iron for anemia, zinc to improve skin and hair condition.

Modified Live Virus Vaccine (MIV) – Modified-live vaccines provide stronger, longer-lasting, and more rapid protection than killed virus vaccines. They are normally less expensive but have a potential to become active and cause disease, especially in a patient with a weakened immune system.

Monensin – Medication found to be of value in preventing coccidiosis in goats at levels that also increase feed efficacy.

Monogastric – Animals with single compartmental stomachs; goats are not monogastric.

Mucous Membranes – The moist linings in the body passages containing mucus-secreting cells.

Multiparous – Used to describe an animal that normally gives birth to two or more offspring at one time or having more than two pregnancies.

Murmur – A fluttering sound, usually heard via a stethoscope, originating from the lungs, heart, or arteries. This may indicate disease or structural problems.

Mycotoxin – A poisonous substance produced by a fungus.


Nanny – A female goat.

Nanny Berries – Poop. Feces.

Naxcel – Off label for goats. Sterile Powder ceftiofur sodium broad-spectrum, injectable antibiotic for the treatment of respiratory infections

Necropsy – Autopsy. Examining a dead body to determine the cause and circumstances of death.

Nitrate Poisoning – When excessive nitrate accumulations occur due to abnormal conditions, such as during drought condition and high soil nitrate levels due to high rates of nitrogen fertilization, following a soaking rain toxic levels of nitrates accumulate in plants.

Non-Spermicidal Lubricant – A friction-reducing substance that will not kill viable sperm.

Nulliparous – Having never given birth to a living kid.

Nutri-Drench – According to Bovidr Laboratories, “Nutri-Drench is a natural, high energy source containing high vitamins, minerals, amino acids and glucose. These nutrients support life and are needed quickly to restore a non-functioning immune system.”


Omasum – The third part of the stomach of a ruminant between the abomasums and the reticulum.

Oocyst – A stage in the life of coccidia found in manure, the fertilized gamete (male or female cell with half the normal number of chromosomes that unites with another cell of the opposite sex in the process of sexual reproduction).of certain parasitic organisms (sporozoans) that is enclosed in a thick wall.

Oral (OP) – By mouth.

Orifices – An opening. When used with goats, normally refers to too many openings in the teats.

OTC (Over the Counter) – Drugs that do not require a prescription; they can be bought anywhere.

Ovary – The female reproductive organ that produces eggs (ovum).

Overbite – A bad alignment of the teeth in which the upper pad protrude too far over the lower teeth. Short underjaw.

Oxytocin – A hormone that controls lactation and reproductive phases of the goat.


Pain – An unpleasant physical discomfort – often acute discomfort.

Panacur – Off label for goats. A brand name for Fenbendazole. Treatment is necessary for 3 consecutive days. Treatment may require a second course depending on which parasite is being treated. It is used against roundworms, hookworms, and is also effective against Giardia and several species of lungworm and some flukes.

Parasites (Worms) – An animal that lives on or in another, usually larger, host organism in a way that harms or is of no advantage to the host

Parous – Females who have given birth at least once.

Parturient Paresis – Muscular weakness or partial inability to move caused by diseases of the nervous system occurring at the time of giving birth.

Parturition – Act of giving birth.

Pasteurization – Treatment of milk by heating it to destroy harmful bacteria, a process discovered by Louis Pasteur. Heating milk to 145 degrees Fahrenheit for 30 minutes kills most bacteria. The process of pasteurization not only kills bacteria, but it also kills destroys nutrients and some essential vitamins.

Pedigree – Ancestry chart.

Penicillin G – Off label for goats. For use in the treatment of disease organisms susceptible to penicillin. Long-acting antibiotic indicated for treatment of bacterial infections.

Pepto Bismol – Off label for goats. An over-the-counter human drug manufactured by Procter & Gamble used to stop diarrhea and settle upset stomachs. (We use it mixed with Biomycin to stop scours.)

Percentage – The mathematical determination of the amount of Boer ancestry in the animal.

Pinkeye – Pinkeye, also known as conjunctivitis, is extremely contagious, spreading from goat to goat. Our first recommendation is to isolate any goat with pinkeye immediately! Pinkeye is caused by several organisms and can be transmitted by flies or dust. A goat with pinkeye will have a cloudy area in the center of the eye or will appear to have an ulcer on the cornea.

Placenta – An organ that develops in the uterus of pregnant mammals to supply oxygen and nourishment to the fetus through an umbilical cord.

Polioencephalitis/Polioencephalomalacia (Goat Polio) –A disturbance of the central nervous system caused by a thiamin deficiency. Symptoms include “star gazing”, and arched back with head thrown back over the shoulder, lack of appetite, and refusal to drink. Treatment consists of 200 to 500 mg of thiamin injected intravenously, intramuscularly, or subcutaneously. There is little chance to overdose with thiamin since it is water soluble and excess is eliminated by the kidneys. Dexamethasone may also be administered with the thiamine to reduce brain swelling.

Post Mortem – After death.

Postpartum – After birth.

Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis) – A condition caused by the sudden extra demand for energy by the fast-growing kids in the last few weeks of pregnancy. In meeting the nutritional needs of the kids, the doe will metabolize fat resources from her body to maintain pregnancy. Symptoms are depression, weak, lack of interest in food, poor muscle control, and poor balance. Many does will show a positive test for ketone bodies in the urine. Treatment with Magic will often save the live of the doe and kids.

Prepartum – Before birth.

Probios – On label for goats. A produce containing microorganisms beneficial to keep the rumen functioning. Any time we give an antibiotic that kills harmful bacteria, we administer a dose (5cc to 10cc) of “blue stuff” – Probios Gel – to replenish the good bacteria in the rumen.

Progeny – Offspring.

Prolificacy – Number of offspring actually produced by a doe. Fruitful.

Prostaglandin (PGF2A) – A substance that resembles a hormone/the unsaturated fatty acid found in all mammals that control smooth muscle contractions, blood pressure, body temperature, and inflammation.

Protein – Complex natural substance with a high molecular weight and a fibrous structure composed of amino acids linked by peptide bonds – present in all living things.

Protein Supplement – Adding additional protein, i.e., soybean meal, to regular diet.

Puberty – Boys reach puberty as early as 2 months of age having the ability to impregnate does. Does enter puberty at 8 months (normally).

Purebred – A high percentage Boer. With does the percentage must be 93% or higher (but less than 100%); with bucks the percentage must be 97% or higher (but less than 100%).

Purina Lamb/Kid Replacer – A milk substitute used with bottle babies.

PVC Trough – Poly Vinyl Chloride – a hard, plastic sold in hardware and building supply stores – can be cut in half and used for feeding.


Quarantined – Isolated in order to prevent spread of disease or contain contagious or infections diseases.


Ration – The fixed and limited amount of food given or allocated.

Raw Milk – Milk that has not been pasteurized.

Recipient – The doe who is receiving the fertilized eggs.

Record Keeping – A method devised by each individual to tract all aspects of herd management. Record keeping enables the farmer to maintain administrative procedures such as registration, offspring, pedigrees, bloodlines, shows, medical treatments/ vaccinations, finances, and contacts.

Red Cell – A foul-tasting (from the reaction of our goats) beef peptone and liver, iron, copper, cobalt, vitamins A, B12, D, E, B-complex, used to replace natural red blood cells lost to anemia. Since this product reportedly does contain animal offal, we prefer to give our goats Geritol.

Registered – Enrolled with a breed association, having the owner’s name officially recorded along with a pedigree of the animal.

Registration Number – An identification number assigned by the breed association.

Rehydrate – Replacing fluids that have been lost from illness, fever or heat.

Rennet – A substance containing the enzyme rennin used to make cheese. It is from the 4th stomach and coagulates milk.

Reproduction Management – Hormones can be used to manipulate estrus synchronization in the doe so as many does as possible come into estrus when you want them to. External progesterone sources such as an implant or CIDR can be used to interrupt the doe's cycle. When the progesterone is removed, most does will come into heat within 24 hours.

Reproductive Health – The causes of poor reproduction in the goat herd often go unrecognized and unresolved, but can markedly reduce productivity. In order to detect reduced fertility and a corresponding low conception rate, a breeding soundness evaluation should be performed on herd sires prior to the breeding season. Semen quality and quantity should be analyzed by a trained technician.

Respiratory Rate (Breaths/Min) – The respiration in adults is 15-30 breaths per minute and in kids 20-40 breaths per minute.

Reticulum – The second (of four) stomachs in ruminants.

Revaccination – To vaccinate again.

Rigor Mortis – The stiffening of the body occurring after death. This is cause by the coagulation of protein in the muscles.

Ringworm –A fungal disease of the skin, scalp, or nails in which intensely itchy patches develop. Also known as “hot spots.”

Rotational Grazing – Moving the animals from one field to another to prevent overgrazing and to reduce infestation of parasites.

Roughage – Fiber.

Rumen – The first stomach of a ruminant. This is the part of the stomach where microorganisms bread down plant cellulose before the food is returned to the mouth as cud for additional chewing.

Rumen Contractions – A healthy goat has rumen contractions (motility) from 1-4 times per minute.

Rumensin – The trademarked name for Monensin which enables goats to obtain more energy from feed and improves feed efficiency in high energy feedlot rations and modulates feed intake.

Ruminant – A cud-chewing, hoofed mammal whose stomach has multiple chambers and who has an even number of toes.

Rumination – Regurgitating partially digested food to chew it again.


Salmonella – A bacteria found in the intestines known to cause gastroenteritis, food poisoning, and typhoid fever.

Scours – A medical term for diarrhea.

Scrapie – Usually a fatal disease affecting the nervous system of sheep and goats. It is marked by intense itching and the loss of muscular control.

Scrotal Circumference Parameters – Sperm production is year round with Boer bucks. The best forecaster of sperm production is testicular weight, and the best predictor of testicular weight in goat bucks is scrotal circumference. A special tape for measuring scrotal circumference gives a relatively accurate estimation of the buck's ability to produce semen. The scrotal circumference (at the widest point) should be measured, since this correlates with fertility and semen production. As a general rule, Boer bucks should measure 26 to 29 cm at 100 pounds. (Dairy bucks should measure 25 to 28 cm at 100 pounds.)

Selenium – A nonmetallic chemical element that occurs in several forms. Most of the US is selenium deficient. A baby goat selenium deficient cannot stand; this is knows as "white muscle disease."

Semen – A thick white fluid containing sperm.

Semen Evaluation – Testing the semen for viability.

Semen Tank – Also known as a Liquid Nitrogen Tank – the canister designed to hold the coolant which keeps the sperm frozen.

Semen Thawing Thermos – An insulated tool with built-in thermometer for cooling

Serving Capacity – Libido or sex drive. Bucks must be disease free, in good condition, and possess enough libido to pursue, mount, and service the doe herd. Normally the buck-to-doe ration should be between 1:25 to 1:50.

Shipping Fever – Respiratory disease usually accompanying movement of goats over long distances.

Side Effects – Expected or unexpected occurrences following medications.

Silage – Fodder made by storing green plant material where it is preserved by partial fermentation

Sire – The male parent.

Skin Tent – When giving a shot SQ, pull up skin behind the front knee making a tent.

SMZ Tablets – An antibacterial medicine to treat infections of the urinary tract, respiratory tract, small intestine, wounds, and coccidiosis.

Sore Feet – A condition caused by incorrect hoof trimming, foot scald, laminitis, or foot rot.

Soremouth – Soremouth, also called orf or contagious ecthyma, is a highly contagious virus of the Pox family. Symptoms, transmission, and treatment in goats is similar to symptoms, transmission, and treatment of chickenpox in human children. Young animals are the most susceptible to developing lesions around the lips, eyelids, nose, etc.; but adult does tend to have more violent outbreaks on their udder, teats, and feet. This disease is easily spread to people when they come in contact with infected goats with the infection normally centered on the hands or face.

South African Boer – A breed of goats, characterized by a red head and white body, originating in South Africa.

Speculum –An orifice opening instrument used in gynecological exams for spreading the vaginal walls.

Spermatozoan (Sperm) – The male reproductive cell with an oval head with a nucleus, a short neck, and a tail by which it moves to find and fertilize an ovum.

Stanchion – An upright frame in which the neck of the goat is confined – for milking or AI.

Sterile Saline Solution –A pure (free from living bacteria, solution of sodium chloride (salt) and distilled water.

Stethoscope – A medical instrument used for listening to breathing, heartbeats, and other sounds made by the body.

Stomach Worms – Blood-sucking parasites. Common stomach worms found in goats are the large stomach worm (Haemonchus contortus), the medium stomach worm (Ostertagia circumcincta or O. trifurcata), and the small stomach worm (Trichostrongylus axei). In Tennessee Haemonchus is the most prevalent.

Straw Cutter – A small device designed to snip the end off the straws before putting the straw into the AI gun.

Straw Tweezers – Long tweezers used to remove the frozen straws from the goblets inside the liquid nitrogen tank

Straws – The packaging system for storing semen is either 5 ml or 0.5 ml plastic straws. Semen is diluted to the desired concentration and the straws are filled and labeled as part of the collecting process.

Stress - Something that causes mental or emotional strain.

Subcutaneously (SQ) – Giving a shot under the skin.

Superovulation – Production of a large number of eggs at one time.

Swelling of Joints – A common symptom of CAE. An increase in size of the joint typically caused by injury, infection, or disease.

Synchronization – Getting does to come into estrus (cycle) at the same time. This is a very important management technique when doing an embryo transfer or if you need to program does to use as teases at a buck collection.

Systemic Disease – Physiology affecting the whole body as distinct from having a local effect.


Tapeworms – A flatworm with a long ribbon-shaped segmented body that exists in many varieties and lives mainly as a parasite in the gut of vertebrate animals

Tattoos – Markings on the skin (for goats either in the ears or on the tail web) providing identification.

TDN – The total digestible nutrients in feed. This is one of four methods of determining the amount of energy in feed.

Teats – The body part of the doe through which milk is excreted for the nourishment of kids.

Temperature – Body heat. The normal temperature of a goat is 102-104 degrees Fahrenheit.

Tetanus – An infectious disease contacted through an open sore or wound. The disease causes severe muscle spasms, especially around the neck and jaw.

Tetanus Antitoxin – A treatment for tetanus that takes effect almost immediately after the injection and only stays in the system for up to 10 days.

Tetanus Toxoid – A highly purified and concentrated vaccine to provide the strongest possible protection against tetanus.

Tetracycline – An antibiotic made from chlortetracydine.

TGPA – Tennessee Goat Producers Association.

Thiamin – Vitamin B1. A thiamin deficiency can cause goat polio (Polioencephalitis, Polioencephalomalacia, PEM). Thiamin is a prescription drug but can be found in lesser strength in Vitamin B Complex (Fortified Vitamin B Complex has an even greater thiamin strength.) Thiamin enhances circulation, helps with blood formation, and helps with the metabolism of carbohydrates.

Trace Minerals (TM) – Those required in small amounts.

Transcervical Artificial Insemination – Penetrating the rings of the cervix to deposit semen thus establishing pregnancy.

TSC – Tractor Supply Company.

Tylosin – Off label for goats. A broad spectrum antibiotic with good anti-bacterial activity against most pathogenic organism such as gram positive bacterium, some gram negative bacterium and is the drug of choice against infections caused by mycoplasma.


Under Bite – A bad alignment of the teeth in which the lower front teeth protrude too far over the upper pad. Long underjaw.

Urinary Calculi – A stone in the urinary track – extremely painful for a buck. The condition is caused by the phosphate crystals collecting in the bladder and passing into the narrow penis/the urethra, causing obstruction and blockage to urine flow.

USBGA – US Boer Goat Association.

Uterus – A part of the female reproductive tract where the embryo is nourished and develops before birth.


Vaccinations – An inoculation with a vaccine to produce immunity. Protect against disease by introducing a serum, antigen, or weakened form of the disease into the body to create immunity.

Vaccines – Medicine contained weakened or dead microbes that cause a particular disease. This inoculation is administered to stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies against the disease.

Vaginal Prolapse – The vagina protrudes during late pregnancy. This is a genetic problem, and does who have vaginal prolapses should be culled as well as their female offspring.

Valbazen – Off label for goats. This is a broad spectrum anthelmintic effective in the removal and control of the following internal parasites: liver flukes, heads and segments of tapeworms, stomach worms, brown stomach worms, barberpole worms, small stomach worms, intestinal worms, thread-neck intestinal and small intestinal worms, hookworms, and lungworms. Do not use if the doe is pregnant; this drug is associated with abortions and/or birth defects if used within the first 60 days of gestation. With cattle and sheep there is a 27 day slaughter withdrawal.

Vetwrap – A self adhesive support bandage.

Vitamin B – See Thiamin.


Wean – To begin feeding a young kid food other than its mother's milk; to remove from the mother at weaning age.

Weaning Age – The age does quit allowing their offspring to nurse; the age the owner separates the offspring from the mother. (We recommend weaning bucks at 3 months when they are capable of breeding their dam.)

Weaning Weight –What the animal weighs when separated from its mother.

Website – An important marketing tool.

Wether – A male goat who was castrated before becoming sexually mature; unable to breed.

White Muscle Disease – Selenium deficiency causes damage to muscle tissue and gives muscles a whitish appearance. Both skeletal muscles (legs and back) and non-skeletal muscles (heart) may be affected with newborns having difficulty walking and/or nursing. Another symptom is respiratory distress.

Whole Corn – Shelled, not crushed, corn kernels is classified as a grain and as dry matter.

Withdrawal Time – The amount of time one must wait after giving a drug to an animal before that animal can be slaughtered for meat/human consumption.

Working Dog – A dog kept in order to herd, guard, or guide.

Worms – Parasites. An infestation of parasites affecting the intestines or others parts of the body.



Yearlings – Goats between one and two years of age.


Zoonosis – A disease goats (vertebrate animals) pass to other animals (humans).

Zygote – A fertilized ovum (egg).

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